Regenerating and repairing individual organs and tissues for a single patient requires mass quantities of the patient’s own adult stem cells. Mass production of adult stem cells for therapeutic applications is highly limited due to the fact that adult stem cells have a limited shelf life when isolated from primary tissues of humans and animals. The act of removing adult stem cells from their original environment is traumatic and has the potential to induce changes or negative effects. Furthermore, the ability to grow adult stem cells in environments that mimic the original host tissue are limited. Adult stem cells lose “stemness” characteristics and the ability to divide and differentiate as adult stem cells are maintained and dissociated (passaged) from growth substrates, as is current practice.